Diabetes Could Be Linked to Functional and Structural Brain Changes

Researchers analyzing data from 51 middle-aged Pima American Indians living with type 2 diabetes used a series of memory and language tests called the NIH Toolbox Cognitive Battery, as well as MRI, to determine the relationship between diabetes, cognition and makeup of the brain.

Brain imaging suggested that study participants with longer durations of type 2 diabetes had decreased mean cortical thickness and gray matter volumes, and an increased volume of white matter hyperintensities.

The MRI results, researchers say, indicate the negative effects long standing diabetes may have on brain health outcomes and emphasize the importance of preventing early onset type 2 diabetes.

Cognition in study participants with type 2 diabetes did not differ compared to those without the condition. 

“This is among the first times that alterations of the brain’s structure have been associated with duration of diabetes,” said first author Evan Reynolds, Ph.D..

“Although we did not find reduced cognition through the NIH Toolbox, this might not give the entire picture. The fact that we saw negative changes in the brain itself provides evidence for the need for early screening for cognitive disorders in patients with type 2 diabetes to improve patient care and quality of life.”

“This study is critical to our understanding of how diabetes affects brain health and lays the groundwork for a larger, longitudinal study addressing how persons with diabetes can maintain a healthy brain,” said senior author Eva Feldman, M.D., Ph.D., James W. Albers Distinguished Professor at U-M, the Russell N. DeJong Professor of Neurology at U-M Medical School and director of the NeuroNetwork for Emerging Therapies at Michigan Medicine.

“Regardless of the underlying mechanisms, preventing these conditions in people with type 2 diabetes is critical to maintaining brain health. Educating the public on the risks that diabetes poses to preserving a healthy brain is part of our mission.”


Evan L. Reynolds, Kristen Votruba, Clifford R. Jack, Richard Beare, Robert I. Reid, Gregory M. Preboske, Camille Waseta, Rodica Pop‐Busui, Robert G. Nelson, Brian C. Callaghan, Eva L. Feldman. Association between brain health outcomes and metabolic risk factors in persons with diabetes. Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology, 2023; DOI: 10.1002/acn3.51859

Michigan Medicine – University of Michigan. “Diabetes linked to functional and structural brain changes through MRI.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 10 August 2023. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2023/08/230810110327.htm>.

Materials provided by Michigan Medicine – University of Michigan. Original written by Noah Fromson. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.

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