Chronic kidney disease is documented to be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, which is also the leading cause of mortality globally. In addition to the high healthcare costs associated with treating chronic kidney disease, it is associated with poor quality of life, especially in patients who progress to end-stage renal disease. Major risk factors that contribute to chronic kidney disease include diabetes, hypertension and metabolic syndrome.
Socioeconomic differentials in health are well documented. Indeed, individuals with low socioeconomic status (SES) have a higher risk of chronic diseases such as chronic kidney disease. The beneficial effects of regular physical activity (PA) and exercise training in preventing cardiovascular disease and promoting overall health are well established. These benefits of PA may also extend to chronic kidney disease incidence and its progression.
The researchers analyzed data from men in Finland who participated in the Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease Risk Factor (KIHD) study. The mean age at enrollment was 53 years, and the participants were followed for roughly 25 years.
Men with low values for both socioeconomic status and cardiorespiratory fitness had a greater risk of developing CKD during follow-up than men with high values for these measures after adjusting for multiple factors associated with risk of kidney disease.
However, men with low socioeconomic status and high cardiorespiratory fitness did not have an increased risk of developing CKD, compared with men with high values for these measures.
Regular Physical Activity Reduces Disease Risk Across All Organs
The results suggest the need for regular physical activity even as people grow older, he said, in light of World Health Organization recommendations (150 to 300 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity per week or 75 to 150 minutes of vigorous-intensity physical activity per week or an equivalent combination of both).
Socioeconomic Status, Fitness, and CKD Risk
Low socioeconomic status was associated with a significant increased risk of CKD (hazard ratio [HR], 1.55)
High cardiorespiratory fitness was associated with a significant decreased risk of CKD compared to low fitness (HR, 0.66) . Compared to men with high socioeconomic status and high cardiorespiratory fitness, men with low values for both measures had a significantly increased risk of CKD (HR, 1.88).
However, there was no significant association between low socioeconomic status/high cardiorespiratory fitness and risk of CKD.
As we see in this study high levels of physical activity and socioeconomic status are each independently associated with the risk of incident chronic kidney disease. There is a significant relationship between these two variables , but high fitness levels appear to offset the increased risk of developing Chronic Kidney Disease related at low socioeconomic status.
-Setor K. Kunutsor (July 8, 2022). High fitness levels offset the increased risk of chronic kidney disease due low of socioeconomic status: a prospective study. The American Journal of Medicine. Retrieved from: https://www.amjmed.com/article/S0002-9343(22)00500-9/fulltext
Photo byJenny Hill on Unsplash