There is substantial evidence implicating vitamin D (Vit-D) levels in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular risk factors such as diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, chronic kidney disease, and obesity.
Studies have suggested that vitamin D may participate in pathways associated with atherosclerosis by influencing cellular growth, oxidative stress, membrane transport, cell adhesion, and gene regulation.
According to the Endocrine Society, levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D ([25-OH]D) of ≤20 ng/mL are considered a deficiency, levels of 21-29 ng/mL an insufficiency, and levels of ≥30 ng/mL as optimal.
New Study Results on Myocardial Infarction and Mortality
Many meta-analyses of epidemiological studies suggested that vitamin D deficiency is associated with an increased risk of Myocardial infarction and cardiovascular mortality.
A study published in the Journal of the Endocrine Society evaluated the effects of vitamin D treatment and nontreatment on Vitamin D deficient patients without a prior history of myocardial infarction.
The study included 20,025 patients with low 25-hydroxyvitamin D ([25-OH]D) levels (<20 ng/mL) who received care at the Veterans Health Administration from 1999 to 2018. The patients were divided into 3 groups, Group A received no treatment and had levels of ≤20 ng/mL, Group B received treatment with vitamin D and had levels of 21-29 ng/mL, and Group C were also treated and had levels of ≥30 ng/mL.
The researchers found that the risk of MI was significantly lower in Group C than in Group B and Group A. No difference in the risk of MI between Group B and A was found. Group B and C had a significantly lower all-cause mortality compared with group A.
There was no difference in all-cause mortality between Group B and C.
The researchers concluded that supplementation with Vitamin D in patients with vitamin D deficiency and no prior history of MI was associated with a significantly lower risk of all-cause mortality. Also, that a lower risk of MI was observed in patients maintaining optimal levels of vitamin D (≥30 ng/mL).
Prakash Acharya, Tarun Dalia, Sagar Ranka, Prince Sethi, Olurinde A Oni, Maya S Safarova, Deepak Parashara, Kamal Gupta, Rajat S Barua, The Effects of Vitamin D Supplementation and 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels on the Risk of Myocardial Infarction and Mortality, Journal of the Endocrine Society, Volume 5, Issue 10, October 2021, bvab124, https://doi.org/10.1210/jendso/bvab124